Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial Investigator Group

A Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children

publication date
2008 Oct
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To compare home-based pencil push-ups (HBPP), home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy and pencil push-ups (HBCVAT+), office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement (OBVAT), and office-based placebo therapy with home reinforcement (OBPT) as treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI).


In a randomized clinical trial, 221 children 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI were assigned to one of four treatments.

Main Outcome Measures

Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) score after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were near point of convergence (NPC) and positive fusional vergence at near (PFV).



After 12 weeks of treatment the OBVAT group’s CISS score (15.1) was statistically significantly lower than the HBCVAT+, HBPP, and OBPT groups’ scores of 21.3, 24.7, and 21.9, respectively (P < 0.001). The OBVAT group also demonstrated a significantly improved NPC and PFV compared with the other groups (P <= 0.005). A successful or improved outcome for the OBVAT, HBPP, HBCVAT+, and OBPT groups was found in 73%, 43%, 33%, and 35%, respectively.


Twelve weeks of OBVAT results in a significantly greater improvement in symptoms and clinical measures of NPC and PFV and a greater percentage of patients reaching pre-determined criteria of success when compared with HBPP, HBCVAT+, or OBPT.

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