Although there is no definitive evidence of causation, studies strongly suggest that there may be a hereditary and genetic predisposition to this disorder:
As with many ocular disorders, signs present slowly and are hard to detect. Periodic comprehensive exams are critical for assessing vision changes, and monitoring and detecting progression of this ocular disease. Optometrists are able to identify indicators that go undetected by a layperson. The following signs may indicate the onset of this condition or other ocular disorder. Initial symptoms include:
One of the difficulties with this condition is that early signs can remain the same for years. During the earliest manifestation, interventions may include standard corrective lenses. Swelling is rare.
Diagnosing a patient requires comprehensive testing using the following diagnostic tools:
There are various options. As progression continues, treatment may include all or some of these options:
Collagen cross-linking: In this procedure, measures are taken to prevent further alterations. It is accomplished with riboflavin eye-drops and ultraviolet light. 33.3350
Intacs: A procedure where semicircular plastic rings are inserted to strengthen the 80cornea and prevent further alteration.
Cornea transplant: In advanced cases where contacts and glasses are no longer effective, a transplant may be necessary to replace damaged tissue. Frequently, contacts or glasses will be necessary post-surgery. Scleral lenses act as a new ocular surface when scarring or damage is extant. While surgeries are usually successful, risks include possible (albeit unlikely) rejection of tissue and infections. Post-surgical maintenance will monitor and treat these conditions, should they present.