In Experiment 1, four 6- to 10-year-old strabismus patients, who had failed to improve convergence ranges using traditional vision training techniques, were given convergence training using random dot stereograms (RDS). An integral part of the RDS training procedure was the incorporation of an operant conditioning procedure providing for response-contingent positive reinforcement, immediate feedback, and preprogrammed systematic changes in convergence demand during discrimination learning. Findings indicated that operant RDS convergence training produced a significant increase in convergence ranges which transferred readily to vectogram tasks and resulted in a change from exotropia to exophoria for at least one patient. In Experiment 2, it was shown that improved convergence ability was a direct result of exposure to RDS of increasing convergence demand. It was concluded that young, uncooperative, language-deficient, or inattentive patients show improved convergence ranges when such training incorporates proper stimuli and the basic principles of learning and motivation into its training regimen.