Stelmack, Joan A. OD, MPH; Tang, Charlene MD, PhD, MPH; Wei, Yongliang MS; Rose, Kenneth OD; Ballinger, Rex OD; Whitman, Olga OD6; Chronister, Connie OD; Sayers, Scott PhD; Massof, Robert W. PhD; for the LOVIT II Study Group

Veterans Affairs Low-vision Intervention Trial II: One-year Follow-up

publication date
July 21, 2019
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One-year follow-up is recommended for patients with macular diseases to assess functional changes associated with disease progression and to modify low-vision (LV) treatment plans, if indicated.


The purpose of this study was to observe 255 patients with macular diseases who received LV rehabilitation (rehabilitation with a therapist) or basic LV services (LV devices dispensed without therapy) during Veterans Affairs Low-vision Intervention Trial II after the trial ended at 4 months until 1-year follow-up.


The primary outcome measure was visual ability measured with the 48-item Veterans Affairs Low-vision Visual Functioning Questionnaire. Mean visual ability scores for the treatment groups were compared from baseline to 4 months, 4 months to 1 year, and baseline to 1 year. Changes from baseline to 1 year were compared between the two groups. Predictors of changes in visual ability from 4 months to 1 year were assessed using linear regression.



Both groups experienced significant improvement in all measures of visual ability from baseline to 1 year but lost visual reading ability during the observation period (LV rehabilitation group, −0.64 [1.2] logit; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.84 to −0.44 logit; basic LV group, −0.63 [1.4] logit; 95% CI, −0.88 to −0.38 logit), and overall visual ability was lost in the LV rehabilitation group (−0.20 [0.8] logit; 95% CI, −0.34 to −0.06 logit). Loss of visual reading ability in both groups from 4 months to 1 year was predicted by reading ability scores at 4 months, loss of near visual acuity from 4 months to 1 year, and lower EuroQol-5D utility index scores; loss of overall visual ability in the LV rehabilitation group during the same time period was predicted by lower overall ability scores at 4 months.


Visual ability significantly improved in all groups from baseline to 1 year. However, the loss of visual reading ability experienced by both groups from 4 months to 1 year reduced the benefit of the services provided.

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